Monday, July 6, 2009

Pub Ad Mains and Prelims tips

I had written this some time back. Stumbled across this document on my laptop. So, sharing with you.


Strategy:

Given the time constraint, a well-thought out strategy makes the difference between success and failure. Intensive and focused approach built on analysis needs to be scrupulously adhered to. Some ingredients of a 'smart strategy' are:

-Building a general overview
-Conceptual Understanding of the subject matter.
-Perusal of question papers of previous years.
-Identification of 'thrust areas' for concentrated pursuit.
-Examination-bias.
-Adequate writing practice for time management and evolving right content.
-Continuous review of performance and appropriate corrections.

Though the current trend of Public Administration suggests that the preparation for prelims should be grounded in a mains-focused approach, the strategy of preparing for Prelims and Mains is markedly different.

Strategy for Prelims:

1. Conceptual Understanding of the subject is a must. Study from standard textbooks to get a grip on the subject matter. Superficial reading won’t help.


2. Public Administration by Laxmikanth is the most important textbook for Prelims. Finish it thoroughly.

3. Read and understand all the concepts thoroughly word by word because, public administration is a game of words. Sometimes questions are asked from the very technicality of the words.

4. Try to go through all the current affairs facts related to Public Administration. For e.g. Pay Commission Reports, Finance Commission Reports, RTI etc.

5. Supplement this knowledge with a few books like Public Administration and Public Affairs by Nicholas Henry; New Horizons of public Administration by Mohit Bhattacharya and Indian Administration by Arora/Goel.

6. Practice Mock tests regularly for all units and also at least one Full Length Test.



Strategy for Mains:

Every candidate appearing for the mains examination should be conversant with the fundamentals of the structure, process, behaviour and environment of the administrative system. It's equally important that the student should be conversant with contemporary and the current developments of socio-political and economic nature that have a close bearing on the functioning of the administration. For example, changing governors, direct grants to panchayats, economic reforms with a human face; globalization and administration, second-generation reforms and the social infrastructure, right to information and participative development.

1. First of all you have to thoroughly analyze the syllabus and the previous years question papers. Then, it will be easy to understand what is actually expected from you.

2. Study basic study material like Sharma Sadana, Arora Goel, Avasthi Maheshwari etc. Supplement it with IIPA journals, Internet etc.

3. While studying the subject, understand it well. Don’t just gloss over it. Secondly, try to feel what you are reading inside. This helps reproducing answers from your subconscious mind during the exam.

4. Amassing information is a big ” DON’T ”. You should be able to identify 'core areas' which cannot be avoided in the context of the mains examination and consolidate. Most importantly, study and writing practice should reinforce each other.

5. Read a magazine like Frontline, Yojana, Kurukshetra and keep a tab on what’s happening around you. You have to anyway do it for GS. Just try to note what is happening in Public Administration specially.

6. Make synoptic notes for all the topics. These help in final revision. One can recall points for a certain topic easily when writing the exam.

7. Writing practice holds the key to success. It ensures legibility, time management and adherence to word limit. Effective introduction, logical build up and balanced conclusion send the right signals to the evaluator. Every question needs to be studied carefully to understand the exact requirements.

8. Several times, the questions are general in nature and not direct. For example, criminalization of politics and politicization of crime; public sector enterprises are neither public nor enterprises; recruitment of recruiters needs to be streamlined and planning in India needs to be depoliticized.

9. For short questions, answers should be direct and precise. In a long essay, introduction should be appealing and effective. Elaboration of the theme should be properly prioritized. Sequencing should be done in such a manner that one paragraph logically follows from another.

10. Depending upon the paper I or II, apt illustrations add value. While answering a question on welfare administration, the concept of welfare needs to be supplemented with the initiatives undertaken by the government highlighting the different types of programmes, the coverage and the resource profile. Unlike general studies, public administration requires interpretative skills, ability to correlate theory and practice; and synchronize conventional with the current. For example, presidential activism in India; budget as an instrument of socioeconomic transformation; citizen-administration interface and e-governance; regulation and development; development and delivery models.

11. Concentrate on the newly emerging and sensitive topics like:
Criminalization of politics
Politicization of administration
Coalition govt.
PMO
Panchayati Raj Institutions and their empowerment
Urban Local Govt.
Disaster Management

165 comments:

  1. Thanks a lot mam for sharing this.

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  2. Ma'am, thank you very much for this post, this will definitely help in proceeding ahead with right approach. Can you please tell about your classroom program for Public Adm at ALS, which you mentioned in an earlier post, so that I can plan for joining it. thanks.

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  3. Ma'am
    Under strategy you mention 'Examination-Bias'. What does that refer to ?

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  4. Mam , cud u plz tell me for which specific topics i should refer IIPA journals....n do i hve to refer IIPA journals for prelims too ????

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  5. Not for prelims, IIPA journals only for mains. That too for specific topics like RTI, Good Governance, Distt Admn, PRIs, Municipal Governance and so on.

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  6. Examination Bias=Exam oriented approach at all stages

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  7. @vikram
    Kindly post the question in separate post. That will help other students when they refer the blog.

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  8. Hi Subhra...
    I am a Comp. Science grad having 3 yrs of IT exp. and presently with CSC.I am preparing for CSE'10 with Pub Ad and Psycho.It would be great if you could provide some useful information on how to begin with,problem areas and time mgmt with work.

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  9. Vivek,

    Kindly start your work by going through other posts and comments of blog. I have answered already these questions.

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  10. Hello Mam
    I have taken PA as my second optional and 2010 will be my first attempt. Kindly give me suggestion how to start main specific i.e. which book to start from........you mentioned Laxmikanth as basic book for pre, Should we also read it or we can start with any other book …….. what book should we read for conceptual clarity and what should be order of covering these book

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  11. I never said Laxmikanth is the basic book for pre.
    Basic books are Sharma Sadana, Arora Goyal, avasthi maheshwari, mohit bhattachrya, prasad n prasad etc

    Please don't ask me about the order. That is something you should find out yourself.

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  12. Hello mam,

    I am appearing for CSE 2010 with Electrical Engg as first paper and pub ad as second.

    I will be opting Electrical engg for pelims.

    Is nick henry and stephen robbins required for main exam ? I have gone thru your previous post and in one post you replied that it is not required and in other post you told that it is required.

    i am focussed for only pub ad mains preparation. So can i skip laxmikant? Or is it really a very imp book. .

    Lastly which is better book for basics Sharma and sadana or Fadia & fadia. .

    I already have sharma and sadana. So should i go for fadia & fadia also ?

    I am asking these questions b'coz i m from a very remote place and it is difficult to get books here. .

    Plz help. .

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  13. Hi Shubra,
    Kindly tell us why you(in particular) have opted for Pub Admin and what was your criteria for selection of an optional.
    Regards.

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  14. Hi Ma'm,

    ALS people are starting the registration for your classes from 10th july. Kindly throw some light on the schedule as in the timings and all. I don't want to miss that.

    Regards,
    Abhinav

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  15. Kindly tell us why you(in particular) have opted for Pub Admin and what was your criteria for selection of an optional.

    *************************************************
    helpful for GS, essay, interview

    relevant to the career i want to get into

    syllabus looked like it could be covered with self study

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  16. ALS people are starting the registration for your classes from 10th july. Kindly throw some light on the schedule as in the timings and all. I don't want to miss that.

    ***************************************
    17th august to 26th aug
    from 12 pm everyday

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  17. Is nick henry and stephen robbins required for main exam ? I have gone thru your previous post and in one post you replied that it is not required and in other post you told that it is required.


    A:stephen robbins motivation and leadership theories are good for mains. If you want you can opt out of this book for mains.

    ******************************************
    i am focussed for only pub ad mains preparation. So can i skip laxmikant? Or is it really a very imp book. .

    A: Laxmiknath is good for prelims only.
    ************************************************
    Lastly which is better book for basics Sharma and sadana or Fadia & fadia. .

    A. I preferred SS. But FF can be used to supplement SS if you have time.

    *****************************************
    I already have sharma and sadana. So should i go for fadia & fadia also ?

    A.See, sometimes there are certain topics that you wont find in SS. For that you might need fadia.

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  18. Hello Mam,
    i went through text book threads of your blog.
    I could not find the name of Public Administration by S.Polinaidu (Galgotia publications) which is now claimed to be top selling(?) books for Administration theories.
    it is quite bulky book but has easy language. Have you gone through that book while preparing? if so, is that book better or prasad and prasad is better?

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  19. I haven't gone thru that book. No idea about it.

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  20. mam, what i should do for statistics portion of mains.. ..please let me know the books i should follow for Statistics Mains.Coz, i am facing some difficulties in that area.Thanking you...

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  21. Hi Shubhra,

    Came to know about your blog through upscportal.com and was browsing through the same past couple of days. A good effort which and excellent use of technology.

    In one of your interviews which I have read on 360careers.com, you have said that it took 14 months for you to clear your exams. Was this your first attempt after leaving your job or you tried earlier also.

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  22. @Yaduveer

    1st attempt- I spent in all 11-12 months.

    2nd attempt- prepared for 3 months more.

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  23. @amit
    kindly go thru gs sources post

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  24. Hi ma'm, it is unfortunate that your workshop timings are clashing with Mukul Pathak sir's class. I had been desperately waiting to join your class but it seems it won't work. I had joined one of the popular teachers for Pubad but left after attending few classes as i did not find him good and since then i am preparing on my own which can explain why i was waiting for the workshop.

    Anyways, could you please let me/us know if there is any other way i can avail the guidance that you gonna be providing at ALS?

    Regards,
    Abhinav

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  25. hello mam..
    i need small info, please can u give me exact books for Pub. Admin and general studies mains

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  26. @sam

    please go thru other posts.

    @abhi

    let me see if smthg can be done

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  27. Thanks ma'm. I am sure a lot many people would be having this problem. After the interaction session at Vairam, many students would be looking upto you for this workshop.

    Regards,
    Abhinav

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  28. Hello Subhra,

    In previous attempt where you have failed?
    How many marks you scored?
    Please let us know is there any lessons you got from your previous attempt.

    These details will motivate the people who failed in prev. attempts could turned out to be a champ like you.

    Thank you Subhra.

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  29. In my previous attempt, I had only 6-7 months in hand before pre. I was working till the end of 2006. Even though I worked really hard, what little time I had was substantially wasted in the so called coaching inst. of Rajinder nagar. Despite that I managed to clear pre, mains..appeared for interview. But missed the final cutoff by 17 marks.

    My score in last attempt was:
    Pub ad: 291
    Psycho: 294
    GS : 335
    Essay : 104
    Interview: 180

    Total: 1204

    Well, from this score and the current score, you can see that in my last attempt the scores were consistently average. And in this attempt the scores are consistently good.

    What this signifies is that I focussed on all areas of the examination equally. The probability of you getting a score in the range of 370-400 is very less. So even if you study one subject more, you might not end up getting a score like 370-400. But that will make sure of one thing, that your other subjects suffer.

    My advice would be that you should give equal attention( not time..as GS is larger than optionals. it would any day require more time) to all aspects of the exam, even essay.

    Thanks.

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  30. Hi Shubra,

    The very special aspect which separates your initiative from attempts by earlier CSE toppers has been that its been interactive and more significantly pan India. Infact it is so nice of you to conduct a workshop in Delhi inspite of having such a tight schedule. However I would for people like me who are far away from Delhi and going to appear in CSE Mains in Oct 09 coming to Delhi at such crucial times of revision would not be possible. With this background I would like to put few suggestions.

    1)A summary containing the answer formats, imp topics and notes which you will share in the workshop can me made in form of a booklet which me may porcure from ALS.

    2)For a dynamic personality like you who is leaving such a indelible mark on future
    policy makers of India, it is imperative that “youtube” as a medium must be explored. Selected recordings of you sessions must be uploaded. It will not only serve the present crop of aspirants but remain in cyberspace, as milestones for future generations .Also I feel there are many people who are in far flung areas like siliguri, motihari, kochi and I can go on, who would benefit from it and make it a more level playing field.

    Lastly as a parting shot, you would recall in my earlier comments I had asked you tips to improve my content and expanse of my writeups. Let me tell your tips have worked wonders, not only to my answers but also to the posts I write rather type....Thanks a bunch!!! Hope to have you as my senior officer one day,

    Shivanu

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  31. Mam
    I have difficulty in introduction part ( meaning scope etc.)of paper 1. Could you please tell me from where I should do this part. Would IGNOU notes be sufficient? If yes, then all units is required to cover or some specific units?

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  32. I have an option in mind that I am working on at the moment for people who can't attend my classes. It should be available by September if I succeed in it.

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  33. IGNOU notes and IIPA journals after you have studied from some standard book.

    Only read the chapters that are relevant to introduction. And trust me, this is perhaps the most significant aspect of Pub ad syllabus. So dont ignore it.

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  34. Thanks a lot Mam for your reply.
    Could you please tell me which standard book should I use for this Introduction part. I have Mohit Bhattacharya and Awasthi & Maheswari.

    Thanks again for all your efforts.

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  35. Hello Subhra,

    Thanks for reply.1204 marks are not bad marks,and i am quite suprised that for these marks the rank is below 400 in 2008 exam.is competition high in 2007 exam?

    Regarding public admin mains i am quite confused with following comment type questions,what the examiner is expecting for the below three questions(just give me idea what area i have to write)
    1)The paradigms of public admin must be understood interms of locus and focus --Golembiewski
    2)calling woodrow wilson father of public adm. is doing injustice to eminent contributions made prior to him.
    3)if public admin is to play major significant role in governing complex society it needs to be more conceptualised discuss

    Thanks in advance Subhra

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  36. MAM
    MB is too difficult to understand for me what can i do for that

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  37. Thanks for reply.1204 marks are not bad marks,and i am quite suprised that for these marks the rank is below 400 in 2008 exam.is competition high in 2007 exam?

    A. The marking in 2008 exam was much tougher than in 2007 exam.



    Regarding public admin mains i am quite confused with following comment type questions,what the examiner is expecting for the below three questions(just give me idea what area i have to write)

    1)The paradigms of public admin must be understood interms of locus and focus --Golembiewski

    A. Locus means "where". Focus means "what". Initially PA was more involved in dissociating itself from Pol Sc. So it was focussing more on locus i.e location. Later its focus changed to subject matter. i.e principles. That is focus. So you have to explain this question in terms of the stages given by Golembiewski.


    2)calling woodrow wilson father of public adm. is doing injustice to eminent contributions made prior to him.

    A. You have to stress the fact that even before 1887 when Wilson gave his seminal essay, many scholars had contributed to pa discipline. then again you can advocate that even though they had made many academic contributions, it was Wilson who brought academic legitimacy to PA.

    3)if public admin is to play major significant role in governing complex society it needs to be more conceptualised discuss
    A. This question is vague. But its roots lay in the fact that since its inception, PA has been more or less ethnocentric with a western bias. To make this theory of pa applicable to all he states of the world is going to fail. Eg. NPM reforms have failed in developing counttries. So the PA needs to be better conceptualised to suit the needs of diff societies with diff problems.

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  38. @shikha
    study from avasthi maheshwari or sharma sadana or fadia fadia

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  39. thanks mam i have avasthi and mashewari with me
    other 2 are not avaible in amravati where i live

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  40. publicness, of PA is an ideal democratic govt remains the ultimate values in theory and practice. elucidate.....

    mam i read this question so many but still unable to understand what actually it ask and what will be the answer i m also in same delimma as other find with question

    how can one tackle such tricky questions

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  41. What is publicness? It means that it's got to do ith citizens at large. which the pvt admn doesn't do. Also pub ad has to do with public interest while pvt admn has to do with pvt interests.

    Basically u need to contrast the imp of "Public " in public administration.

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  44. @Shivanu

    Good effort.
    But it looks more like an article than an answer. Try to frame it in a more answer like format.

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  45. Good afternoon Mam

    Mam is all this question have to answer in same manner? or there is diffrence between all this question......
    1)Budget is tool which serve many purposes
    2)Budget is an instrument pf social economic transformation
    3)Examine the government budget as an instrument of publc policy and a local legislative control.
    4)the budget is an instrument of co-ordination.explain

    and MAM this qu m even do not understand what actually question is all about in this 2 question what they expect from us

    1)Successfully implementing budeting approach requires favourable response incentives structure. discuss
    2)why does the issue of bidgeting as politics v/s budgeting as analysis remain important in budgeting process ? do u agree tht some synthessis of position seems positive.ILLustrate

    please explain this as u clearly explain previous questions

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  48. Hi All,

    Incase you are not able to buy books from where u live you may log on to books4u.in
    Register on the site and you may purchase books from there.

    I live in roorkee and coun't find laxmikant, leave alone others.

    This is good. Also please note that i am no more than a customer to this site and you are to purchase at your own will.

    Regards,
    Akhil Rana
    Roorkee

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  49. Mam is all this question have to answer in same manner? or there is diffrence between all this question......
    1)Budget is tool which serve many purposes
    2)Budget is an instrument pf social economic transformation
    3)Examine the government budget as an instrument of publc policy and a local legislative control.
    4)the budget is an instrument of co-ordination.explain

    and MAM this qu m even do not understand what actually question is all about in this 2 question what they expect from us

    1)Successfully implementing budeting approach requires favourable response incentives structure. discuss
    2)why does the issue of bidgeting as politics v/s budgeting as analysis remain important in budgeting process ? do u agree tht some synthessis of position seems positive.ILLustrate


    *************************************************
    The last 2 questions are more open ended than the 1st 4. I would not attempt these 2 questions in the exam.

    The deman of each of the 4 questions given above is different. You have to focus on the words that the questions have given you. eg."instrument of publc policy and a local legislative control", "instrument of coordination" etc.

    in the 1st case you have to emphasise on budget on public policy side and legislative control side.
    But in the 2nd one, you have to stress the need of budget to ensure coordination- among deptts, among states, states-centre, centre-sate-local bodies and so on.

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  50. @akhil

    Globalization made a big impact on the role of the state. It resulted in roll back of state and limiting its scope. Alternative service delivery mechanisms came into being. The emphasis was that minimalist state would lead to efficient and effective delivery of public goods.


    you have started out wrong. It was not globalisation that limited the role of the state. It started with the reaganism, thatcherism in US,UK resp. and Public choice approach and NPM. Good gov came later as an aid conditionality for developing countries.

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  51. In context of developing countries, the world bank having realized in the Sub Saharan African experiences made a change in its policies. Along with economic reforms programme they also started to call for structural changes in public and political institutions of the recipient countries. The aim was to apply the concept of good governance, so that the aid which was given was fully utilized. This caused problems at two levels. Firstly the recipient countries argued that structure of public institutions were related to distribution of power, hence political in nature. Thus these issues should not be interfered with. There was stiff resistance on this account. However the World Banks was able to legitimize its position, that these reforms were required effective usage of aid.



    *****************************************

    This looks like a story you have written about the evolution of good governance.(not the answer)


    Read the question carefully again. and your 1st para should reflect the answer to that question.

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  52. Thanks Mam Have a nice day God bless u

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  55. This should have been your intro:

    Thus governance can be defined as a process by which a network of non governmental agencies provides public goods, with emphasis being on economy, efficiency and effectiveness. When the word good is attached to governance it would seem to suggest as a value premise which emphasizes on the quality aspect. However good governance is a concept which seeks to broaden the definition of governance, in the context of developing countries. It seeks to make the services not only efficient and effective but transparent, responsive, and equitable.

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  56. @shivanu
    excellent conclusion.

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  57. Mam,
    For model answers to PA Mains questions can we rely on model answer book available in marker such as Chronicle, New Vishal, Jawahar publications etc.
    If yes then which is best to have a good idea about answer writing.

    And Do we need Nicolas Henry for Mains?

    Regards
    Alok

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  58. I went thru the model answers of some publications like new vishal's but they are not good quality.

    Nicholas henry can help u in public policy chapter and budget. Thats all.

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  59. hello mam, I hav no words to thank u....I m a biginner n was just wandering to get a good guidance....after reading ur blog I just felt like I got my destination......
    Mam its a request like other members of blog if I post answers framed by me, would u plz comment on it.....

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  60. of course Pooja. You don't have to ask. just post your answers here. I will try to help you the best way I can.

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  63. good evening maam,
    first of all kindly accept my heartiest congratulations for ur success and such a splendid performance. maam i want to how did u prepare geography for general studies. i find it comparitively difficult than other general studies subjects to tackle. kindly help me in this regard

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  64. I have mentioned geog sources in GS post. Regular atlas reading is a must.

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  65. @shivanu
    A. Post independence the state has changed from laizze fare state to a welfare state. Along with the traditional functions new responsibilities of development administration and local bodies were added to the district administration. The rate of building capacity to handle these enormous responsibilities has not kept pace with the centralized planning at the higher levels. Hence the pace of and quality of development has been low.

    During the 1950’s and 60’s many committees were set up for reforms in administration like the Ayyangar committee(1949), Gorawala committee(1951) and ARC . However their focus was more on secretariat and directorate. Thus a mismatch was created between the planning and execution agencies. Subsequently efforts have been made to create a balance by decentralizing planning with local governance initiatives, along with formation of agencies like DRDA.

    *********************************************
    not good.
    your fist 2 paras don't talk about the question at all. You were asked about distt admn and you are mentioning everything else. write it again.

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  66. @shivanu
    2nd question

    u were suppowed to talk abt 73rd and 74th amendment acts. But you never mentioneed them. study these chapters first.then try to answer these questions.

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  68. Good effort Shivanu.
    Much better. but this answer is incomplete. Try to put all the issues with the instn of distt collector in India.

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  70. Very good shivanu.
    You have improved substantially. For now, this is good enough. Keep it up!

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  73. Very good effort!!!
    But try to add the part about what kind of bureaucracy would be suitable for development. namely developmental bureaucracy. this model has been given by some theorists.

    also refrain from giving the conclusion to ur answer in every paragraph.

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  77. Hello Madam,

    Congrats for ur success in our Nation's prestigious examination. My Query -1) in GS we get question related to international organisations (u av not suggested any book for that) and there is a book in the market called International Organisation (Spectrum) shall v buy it.
    2)How should we prepare for two marks in GS.
    3)Should we use flowcharts or diagram in our answer will it fetch us extra marks.

    with regards
    M.Lavanya

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  78. Hi Ma'am,

    I am following laxmikant as a text book for pub ad, i am having a major issue with recalling the theories of different thinkers on diverse aspects of administration.

    Please guide me on how better prepare my part 1 of the exam..

    Which paticular books are necessary for part 1 of the pre & mains syllabus..

    Please elaborate as my condition is sucidal in part 1.

    Sincere Regards,
    Akhil Rana.

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  79. Was the reworked answer on PRI&ULB on right lines?

    requires better effort,kindly study these chapters fully before attempting questions.

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  80. @Shivanu

    Brilliant answer. Keep it up!

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  81. 1) in GS we get question related to international organisations (u av not suggested any book for that) and there is a book in the market called International Organisation (Spectrum) shall v buy it.


    A. yes please.
    ********************************************
    2)How should we prepare for two marks in GS.
    A. Solve previous 10 yrs questions. Buy the 2marker book sin market. try to write 2 markers well. Write maximum information in minimum words.
    **************************************
    3)Should we use flowcharts or diagram in our answer will it fetch us extra marks.

    A. yes

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  82. Q) In science of administration whether public oir private the basic good is efficiency. comment.
    Ans) many scholar believe that public and pvt adminstration are one and the same.There is no clear cut difference between them.Both work on same principle but what is needed is to found out the prociple on which science of adminstration works.
    The baisc good of any administration activity is to provide services efficient and economic manner.Whether public or private, both adminsitration work on same principle of POSCoRB to be efficient in service delivery.
    Techniques of scientific amangemnet are equally applicable to both adminsitration and revolutionise the way or working and providing goods and service with efficiency and economny.If services are not provide with timely and efficient manner whole purpose of providing service are fail.
    MAM is this kind of ansswer work.....at present i stuck at this point and no idea coming to my mind to elborate this. please guide me madam.
    thanks

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  83. Q)public and pvt adm are 2speiecs of same genus
    but they also have special values and techniques of thier own.
    Ans)Adm is an activity which requires collective efforts and common purpose. both in pub & pvt adm techniques in which they work are alike and each activity have to properly planned, organised with adequate material and equipment,staffed with appropriate skills, all work need to be co-ordinate, budgeted and well reported.
    though the techniques are same in pub and pvt administration they have to work in totally different environment. In pub ad where the political boss set goals to achieve for adminstration.in pvt adm not many ahve to meet at single point which make decision making process easier and give relatively autonomy to pvt adm.
    Rules and regulation which is already laiddown pub adm have to work within this and any deviation from procedure laid will make them held responsible for any misconduc. Sets of rules are also ther for pvt adm as well but they are relatively less abd any deviation from them will not result in public outrage.
    the main motive of pub adm is to work for public welfare. by contrast, main objective of pvt business is to amke profit without which they cannot survive in market.
    Pub ad have to treat each one alike and in impartial way otherwis it leads to
    public anger while in pvt business it freely practice and enhance thier business and amarketability.
    in summation we can say that public and pvt adm are 2speiecs of same genus
    but they also have special values and techniques of thier own.

    ReplyDelete
  84. Hi mam!
    One basic doubt....after studying and understanding a topic shall i practise writing previous years question papers answers for that topic or shall i complete the whole syllabus first and then practise solving previous years questions.

    ReplyDelete
  85. @Natasha
    I think you can start writing after finishing one topic well.

    ReplyDelete
  86. @natasha
    But the quality of your answers would improve when you do other units as well...bcoz the topics many a times are interlinked.

    ReplyDelete
  87. @Shikha
    1st ans will not work.
    first you stress the similarity in pub and pvt adm in terms of stress on efficiency.
    Then You have to stress the fact that efficiency isnt the only value driving Pub adm. The hallmark of PA is Public interest.

    ReplyDelete
  88. @shikha
    2nd ans

    improve your organization.
    work on writing conclusion diff from the question
    the content is ok, not v amazing. I would request you to study this topic well first, then try to answer this question again with better organisation.

    ReplyDelete
  89. Hi Ma'am,

    I have bought Rumki Basu for Pub Ad. Can you please let me know if its a good choice. I do not wish to go in for sadana / sharma cos its quite bulky, Avasti Maheshwari is verbitamm with Laxikant on most topics ( which i have studied so far). I intend to do sadana after my PT preperation.

    So far i am going by Lamxi,Prasad, Rumki Basu, Avasti Maheshwari & Mohit.B for part 1 & Laxmi, Avasti & Avasti, Internet for part 2.



    Is it an appropriate approach?

    ReplyDelete
  90. Hi Ma'am,

    Please justify the statement "Decentralization results in duplication of work and lack of centralized housekeeping authenticity" .

    I am not able to reason the former part of the statement .

    ReplyDelete
  91. @Akhil
    I haven't consulted Rumki basu. But I have heard it's good.

    Duplication of work would result because of too many centres performing diff jobs. decentralisation would result in lesser controls over field agencies and lack of central purpose.

    ReplyDelete
  92. Hello Mam...
    1. Which part of IGNOU notes to consult for public policy. In all there are almost 20 files. Should we approach topic to topic as given in syllabus or need to read all the chapters verbatim? Dearth of time is demanding me to restrict my choices. I need an expert advice.
    2. For the Personnel admin question I asked in another thread, Fadia has written some 15 odd chapters. Again same Qn- all chapters or syllabus wise?
    Pl help!

    ReplyDelete
  93. Thankyou mam!God bless u:)Take care

    ReplyDelete
  94. Please look at sylllabus and then decide which chapters to study.

    ReplyDelete
  95. Mam,
    I have chosen Pub Ad & Psychology.I just wanted to have an idea of which paper should i consider as Ist,2nd optional.I am gona join at vajiram since we have Mr.Muthul Patak sir,will it be a good choice to select Psychology as my 1st optional.Pls put in your idea mam.

    ReplyDelete
  96. hello mam
    can u plz suggest me how can improve my gs .m really bad at this section.i ve no idea about anythin in any field of gs.
    how to start with for a novice like me?

    ReplyDelete
  97. @sashi

    Plz do not choose 1st and 2nd optional based on avl of coaching.

    Make the decision based on syllabus, avl of study material, nature of questions asked and so on.

    ReplyDelete
  98. @sonon

    start with NCERTs and newspapers

    ReplyDelete
  99. thanks mam
    i m appearing for 2010 .u think i ve sufficient time to improve my gs.

    ReplyDelete
  100. Yes you do. Just remove your fear first.

    ReplyDelete
  101. thanks mam. u really helped me a lot !! u knw wat before seeing ur blog i was thinking to drop this plan but now i wont give up .
    thanks !!

    ReplyDelete
  102. HELLO MAM.
    AS I AM PREPARING FOR PRELIMS 2010.
    PLEASE TELL ME THE STRATEGY TO PREPARE.
    I WANT TO KNOW THE NAME OF DICTIONARY OF ECONOMICS THAT YOU USED TO PREPARE ECO.. PLEASE HELP OUT MAM!
    THANKS & REGARDS
    NEERAJ

    ReplyDelete
  103. @Shubhra,

    Thanks for everything. I just got my pre result, chanced upon this site and would be a regular here from now on.
    Read about your classes in a post, but would not be able to attend them (not in Delhi). It would be great if you could find get your classes video recorded and upload on youtube. I know its a bother, but sensing your good samaritan attitude, I had to put in this request.

    @ Shivanu,

    Come on man! Take a leaf out of Shubhra's book and please repost your good answers either on this blog or elsewhere (just let us know where). Lets keep the spirit of sharing at this site alive.

    ReplyDelete
  104. Hello Subhra,

    I have read about 4p's of Luther Gullick.
    But in previous papers (prelims)there are questions on Departmentalisation by product in which books i can get information on this.
    The question i found is as follows.Can you please explain this.

    Which of the following regarding departmentalisation by product is not correct?
    Ans: it does not carry dangers of increased cost through duplication of central services and staff activities.
    I am not able to understand answer.Can you pls explain and give me the book where i can find information regarding this.

    Also give in which book Organisation development,matrix org are good?


    Thanks a lot.

    ReplyDelete
  105. Hello Subhra,

    In 2009 prelims there is Q on Who propounded non-coercive theory Ans: thayer

    I am not able to find this theory in the books i am reading,Have u seen this theory in any book
    Please advice

    ReplyDelete
  106. @Sri
    No, I dont have any idea aboout this theory.
    Remember, there are going to be bouncers in Prelims. Do not attempt to answer all questions any day.

    ReplyDelete
  107. @Sri
    I thought the 4 Ps were process, purpose, person and place.

    Maybe by product they mean Purpose.


    You can read stephen robbins for org dev and matrix orgn.

    ReplyDelete
  108. Hello mam........
    I am an engineering student of second year.
    i want to be an IAS officer in future.
    what should i do right now to prepare for my exam???
    My branch is I.T. so there are no direct subjects which i can take.
    Thus whichever subject i will take , i have to prepare it from groundlevel.
    so please guide me how should i prepare or what books should i follow right now???
    i have interest in public administration and geography.
    what should i read to improve general studies???

    ReplyDelete
  109. First buy the syllabus of UPSC to see as what all you would need to cover for this exam. Then buy the standard books for these subjects.

    Also choose a newspaper and go through it regularly.

    ReplyDelete
  110. Maam want to know that Public Administration was your first optional for prelims or second for mains??

    ReplyDelete
  111. In prelims, there is only one optional. That is known as 1st optional.

    It was Pub Ad for me.

    In mains you can take any 2 subjects, it is not contingent on ur prelims subject. therefore any 1st or 2nd subject in mains doesn't hold.

    ReplyDelete
  112. thanks shubhra!! i dont have any administrative background so is it ok for me to take pub.ad as optional sub?? i have done my grad in science wid botany sub.. can u give the general tip to understand pub.ad??

    ReplyDelete
  113. Yes, you can take pub ad w/o any background in the subject.

    ReplyDelete
  114. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  115. Hi..cd u plz tell me which book(s) shd i refer to for topics in pub ad paper1- organisation,accountability and control ,development dynamics, and tech of admn improvments. I found some relevant chapters on organisation in Sharma-sadana only..i will highly appreciate your gudinace on these topics..thanks for your continued support and advice..

    ReplyDelete
  116. consult fadia/fadia, ignou notes, IIPA journals

    ReplyDelete
  117. Hi Ma'am,

    Please help me on how formulate the ans to the ques below:

    Q:How does Wilson's perception support or detract from Weber's view of a well organized bureaucracy and Taylor's view of the managing and outcome driven production?

    ReplyDelete
  118. This question was in one of the sample test series questions i found on the internet. What should we do incase of such ques.

    Regards,
    Akhil

    ReplyDelete
  119. hello Subhra,

    i am Rahul, presently in 4th year engineering. Heartiest Congratualations on getting top honours in civil services.

    I would like to know where two get good material for ANTI DEVELOPMENT THESIS , pertaining to chapter of Development Dyanamics.

    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
  120. In test series, all kind of questions are framed. As the demand of the question is not clear to me, I would not answer this question in the exam.

    ReplyDelete
  121. It is also called post dev thesis or counter dev thesis

    ReplyDelete
  122. Thank you, but can you please indicate the specific reliable website for post devt thesis.

    ReplyDelete
  123. I don't have it...I referred it long back

    ReplyDelete
  124. Please advise on how to frame up answer on following question-

    "The main features of British Government and administrative system continues to influence the present Administrative system."

    in 200 words

    ReplyDelete
  125. hi
    where can i get detailed syllabus of public admin
    online or for that matter any subject. so that we can know new additions etc.. . is there any upsc source or is it like the new syllabus is given when notification is given
    in UPSC .

    thanks
    srikanth

    ReplyDelete
  126. You have to write about structural, procedural and attitudinal legacies of British admn in Indian admn.

    ReplyDelete
  127. You will have to compare old and new syllabus to see what all has been added.

    ReplyDelete
  128. Hi Shubhra,
    Can you please tell which topics are imp and should be studied from IGNOU notes.

    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  129. 1st unit required to be studied frm IGNOU notes.
    Then whenever you find any unit diff to understand or comprehend from other books, refer ignou notes, eg public policy

    ReplyDelete
  130. Madam can you give me any idea of books regarding pub admin and GS i have not join any coaching class .Pub admin is good for prelim

    ReplyDelete
  131. Hello Shubhra M'm,

    Congratulations for your astounding success!!!!!!!!

    I have been following your blog very religiously over the past few weeks...

    I have a basic query...

    How to go about self evaluation?

    I am really confused about this one...

    If you could shed some light on it i would be very grateful..

    Thankyou
    Regards
    Smitha Kumaran

    ReplyDelete
  132. hey shubhra...myself Dr.Nidhi khera from chandigarh...well,i have just started preparing for ias and have chosen pub adm as my first optional..havnt joined any coaching??if u can just help me out with how to start,i mean which books to start reading first to have better understanding..also i will be appearing in may 2010...so shud i start preparing from now only or i can afford to relax 2 or 3 more months as far as pub adm is concerned..and lastly how and where can i get this IGNOU and IIPA notes??i will be very thankful if you can just give me an initial push...

    ReplyDelete
  133. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  134. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  135. Hello mam..
    Is d book by Mohit Bhattacharya sufficient for Woodrow Wilson's vision of Pub Ad. or do we need to refer more for dis topic?

    ReplyDelete
  136. @Smitha
    Compare your earlier answers with new ones.
    Also go for peer evaluation

    ReplyDelete
  137. @Kamlendra
    go thru the entire blog and comments
    you will get your answers.

    ReplyDelete
  138. @sonal
    yes, the book will suffice

    ReplyDelete
  139. @nidhi
    buy ncerts for gs and basic books of pub ad. I have mentioned them in a separate post.

    You can get a copy of IIPA journals from Bersarai new delhi....IGNOU notes are avl online on egyankosh.com


    @sonal
    yes, the book will suffice

    ReplyDelete
  140. @shivanu
    Have You removed your earlier answers evaluated by me from this blog?

    ReplyDelete
  141. Hello Shubhra Ma'm,
    A Zillion Thanks for answering my query!
    Smitha...

    ReplyDelete
  142. Madam....pls evaluate the below answer.

    Q. What is meant by morale? There is a belief "that morale and productivity go hand in hand and higher the morale, higher the productivity." Do you agree? Substantiate.

    A. Morality means the feeling of general happiness and satisfaction of a person or group at individual and organisational level. This socio-psychological state is of general character, long lasting, cost effective and highly productive. There is a directly proportionate relation between morale and productivity. Morale shoots the energy level, confidence and satisfaction of employees and team and ensures their loyalty towards organization. Productivity means efficient and cost effective production and it depends largely on the workforce and their commitment level. Morale is the basic input for boosting the commitment level of human resources ensuring the efficient and cost effective exploitation of material resources even in crisis like situation. Japan is an striking example of becoming the second largest economy within such a sort span even after the devastation of 1945 atomic bombing. This all happened because of its committed and dedicated workforce and labour friendly policies government which resulted in boosting the morale of its workforce in delivering low cost and high tech products.

    Morale as the socio psychological and behavioral concept originated as a result of search for ensuring efficient and effective production and corruption free workforce of high integrity. There are two kinds of resources available with any organization namely material and human resources. It is the human resource on whose efficiency depend the cost effective and qualitative processing of material resources which a consequences increases the productivity. Morale is indispensable for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the employee base. The orthodox mechanical and structural viewpoint of the organization in western economy ignored this aspect and the result was low productivity even after more than one century of industrial revolution. This necessitated the revision in approach by socio-psychological and behaviour thinkers of the age who came out with various behavioural concepts associated with reorienting the behaviour of workforce towards high production. Morale was one of those concepts.

    Probably it is the best among those concepts because it last long and much cost effective, once evolved. Unlike others, it is not generated over day through monetary and other inducements associated with a particular work imposing heavy financial burden on organization but evolved over time through sound personnel and operational practices. Once it is evolved it lasts long and provides ample opportunity to the organization to correct the mistakes of unhealthy personnel practices. This contributes to a large scale in productivity.

    Morale is characterized by increased confidence and energy level, high satisfaction level and sense of belongingness on part of workforce. This is attained by practice of recruiting and placing the right persons (with high aptitude and deep interests) in right job of organizations, simultaneously effective training and placement in right slot, attractive pay & perks, comfortable working environment, rewards and recognition and democratic, consultative and decentralised decision making. Recruitment, training and placement ensures the confidence, competence and energy level of the person, attractive service condition and comfortable working environment make him highly satisfied. Further Reward and recognition and democratic decision making secure his loyalty and sense of belongingness. Thus all the above mentioned practices are nothing but the steps directed to increase the MORALE of the employee base.

    ReplyDelete
  143. I will analyse the various impediments of productivity and see how morale clears those impediments through confidence, satisfaction and loyalty generated over healthy and employee friendly organization.

    Very often productivity is marred due to unseen crisis and persistent challenges like understaffing, poor infrastructure, low resources, inefficiency of staff etc. In India there is shortage of productive workforce in general and judges, doctors and teachers in particular resulting in huge arrears of pending suits, long queue after hospitals and low enrollment and higher drop outs in schools. High confidence and energy level of an employee and a team generated through morale boosting personnel practices reduces the impact of the crisis and challenges on the mindset of employee and increase their efficiency. They turn this into an opportunity to prove their excellence and win more respect in organization. Such practices are required urgently in India since our judges and lawyers are one third efficient as compared to their western counterpart and morale of teachers and doctors are low.

    Secondly, effect of productivity is lost due to incurred cost on recruiting additional managers and leadership with short span of control for close supervision. Further corruption on part of employees and leaders also lowers the effect of production and productivity itself. Mr. Pratysh Sinha, CAG in a conference titled “peole, probity and performance” reffered to the World Bank report that India’s GDP and FDI would grow by 2% and 12% if corruption is eliminated. The need of close supervision is born out of poor satisfaction level on part of workers and morality of leaders. A satisfied workforce does not need much supervision as they have aptitude and general interest and satisfactory working environment. This relieves the existing leadership for handling planning and managerial work much effectively. This also fights corruption by activating the moral nerves of the people backed by general satisfaction.

    Thirdly and lastly, Productivity is affected by the informal practices in the organization on the part of workers. The reason behind them is the undemocratic decision making and highly centralized nature of organization. This creates the apathy and affects the loyalty of the workforce. The poor performance of development schemes in India reveals these facts. Morale boosting practices of consultative decision making and reward and recognition helps in cultivating the sense of belongingness and secures the loyalty of the people. Further it creates the sense of ownership on part of workforce which helps in mitigating the differences within workers and management facilitating high level of coordination which is indispensable for higher productivity.

    There has been academic debate about direct relationship between the morale and productivity among scholars. Those who deny this, argues the dearth of consistent data and universality of the relationship. Irrespective of such arguments, One can never deny the impact of the lower level of the constituents of morale on productivity in their absence. Like the role of human element in productivity, the role of morale in effectiveness of human resources can not be underestimated overlooked. The role of morale boosting practice of reward and recognition gets attested by the remark of an astute psychologist “you can get more of those you reward. It’s human nature.”

    Thanks & Regards
    Gautam

    ReplyDelete
  144. @shivanu,

    a humble request to you: please put up your answers on the blog again. It would benefit many like me, and in my opinion would not hamper your prospects of success in this exam even a little bit.

    ReplyDelete
  145. @Gautam
    Excellent answer.

    Some points:
    Morality and morale are diff entities.
    Mr Pratyush sinha is CVC and not CAG.

    Please leave this answer here so that other ppl can derive some benefit out of it.

    ReplyDelete
  146. Madam,

    Thank you very much for correction and encouragement.

    Pls. correct my conception of the difference between morality and morale.

    Morality is spiritual and broader entity than morale which is socio-psychological state. Morality is more concerned with accountablitly while executing the work and responsiblity associated with the object of the work whereas Morale is the basic energy simply required to accomplish the job in hand. Morality is a 2nd order inquiry and deals with the ultimate goal which is beyond the organisational goal. In fact this lays the basic foundation of organisational goals. In absence of morality even a person /organisation with high morale can go corrupt and deviates from real goal.For example: Public interest is the essence of Public adminstration and an organisation and its staff with high morale can achieve the organisational target and turnover but may fail on the test of public interest which is the subject matter of morality.

    Other subject matter of morality are corruption, transparency, inclusive and distributive justice etc.

    --->Please leave this answer here so that other ppl can derive some benefit out of it.
    A. I will not remove my answer. Be assured.

    To all Blog visitors :(if madam permits this)

    I am sad over such practices (deleting your answers) which dilutes the essence and rationale behind this initiative of Madam.You have some responsiblity associated with every public service you use. None other than a student of public adminstration like u can understand this better. This is invaluable and rarest (almost absent)assistance which madam is providing to us. Try to think over the objective behind this and like a responsible future officers contribute towards realising it. Believe me there is no harm in it.

    Thanks & Regards
    Gautam

    ReplyDelete
  147. Q. Authority has been defined in part as a “character of communication in a formal organisation.” Comment. (20 marks)

    A. The real test of Authority of a leader/manager/supervisor is the compliance of his decisions by his subordinates and intended people. Communication is the medium through which decisions flow and reach to the subordinates. Subordinates accept the communication partly under ‘compulsion’ due to formal superior position of its sender and partly as ‘consent’ due to its clarity and acceptability. This clarity, acceptability among other factors constitutes the character of the communication and its impact on legitimacy (popular acceptance) of authority is central theme of ‘consent theory of authority’ or ‘acceptance theory of authority’ advocated by Chester I. Barnard an administrative thinker.

    Clarity of communication means that people should understand it easily. The acceptability is contingent upon following character of communication:
    1. Consistency with organizational purpose else subordinate would treat this as misuse of official authority for personal favours.
    2. Compatibility with his personal interest like incentives, monetary and other benefits for motivation.
    3. Mental and physical feasibility of the order which means subordinate is capable and trained to obey the orders and do the job.

    Communication possessing above set of characters is called authoritative communication. The reason behind the emergent role of authoritative communication is existence of informal organisation at all levels on account of personal equation and relationship among subordinates developing own set of norms and zones of indifference.
    Communications are generally of formal character and when it clashes with the norms & outside this zone, fails to ensure abidance thus jeopardizing the authority of superior. This necessitates the flexibility on part of leadership in modifying the character of communication to enable to fall into zone of indifference.

    The role of such modification is however partial and leadership has to use it to harness the potential of the informal org in assisting the accomplishment of goals of formal organisation. This is not a compulsion on the part of leadership when objectives and interests of formal organizations get undermined. The lesson is judicious and flexible exercise of authority with fine balance of carrot and stick.

    ReplyDelete
  148. Mam here's a question of indian adm PSU topic:-
    "The public sector has to grow.It has a strategic importance."

    i feel there can be 2 approaches to this ques:-
    1.This statement was made at certain time when India got freedom.At that time focus was on welfare state.Today public sector is shrinking because of privatisation.
    OR
    2.Public sector is indispensable(strategic importance) in certain fields/areas like Defense etc.Even after 1991 reforms role of public sector has not decreased but changed.Previously it was doer now regulator.Also it still holds critical and vital PSU like defense.In future also it will grow according to circumstances.

    Mam please tell me which approach is correct or is there any other approach?

    Thanks and Regards
    Natasha

    ReplyDelete
  149. @Natasha
    2nd one would be more relevant.

    @Gautam
    Very Good Answer!

    ReplyDelete
  150. Good Morning mam
    MAM i m completed with making notes of few chapter included those which is mention in lasmikant but now i find some more material in that topic so i m asking should i inculded that in notes? like ERG expectancy theories, game theory, etc... if yes what should b the extent of it?

    ReplyDelete
  151. @Shikha
    Look at the question papers and then decide the extent. Other than the conceptual understanding of a topic, you shud also be well versed with the factual aspects.

    ReplyDelete
  152. madam thanks for all the help you are providing us. But I would like to suggest one thing, please make a separate post for all the answer posts people want to make.
    Because they are hardly of any use for beginners like me. It is just increasing time to find the relavant information. If there will be separate post then it will be helpful for all of us.

    Thankyou
    Gaurav shrivastava

    ReplyDelete
  153. Hello Shubra,

    Could you pls tell us what were your optional for the Preliminary? Also tell us like if anyone from Engineering background appears for it what will be the best optionals? I am from IIT Bombay.

    Thanks
    Bhupendra

    ReplyDelete
  154. hello mam..
    i am savita did MPT(NEUROLOGY)....civil service aspirant..having psychology as first optional and pub ad the second one...
    mam as initiator in public adminstration,what is the first step in prepration...i joined vajiram for guidance,kindly tell me the strategy...

    ReplyDelete